Not just a replacement, but an improvement!

EML AD1-UX4 Mesh

Uploaded: 27-Jun-2017 17:32


The first owner can register the tube at the Emission Labs ®website, to participate in the 5 years guarantee program.


The EML AD1-mesh is a 15 Watt single Anode directly heater triode, electrically similar to 2A3, but AD1 works at 4Volt heaters and it has another base. Though it is electrically not identical, any existing 2A3 circuit diagram can be used, provided you have the 4 Volt heater voltage available.

One important feature of the EML AD1-Mesh, is the possibility to operate it at higher voltage than the historical tubes. Some historical tubes allowed the use above 250Volts, but not all. At higher Anode voltage, the AD1 turns into a tube with amazingly high efficiency, outdoing 2A3. However at the higher Anode voltage, it requires a higher impedance transformer.

AD1, the queen of European DHT triodes, was intended for large radios and cinema amplifiers. It was introduced just before the second world war, und during the war "big" radios and cinemas were no item. Already during the war, military small pentodes were made. Then after the war, the high need for new made radios ended the production of the AD1, before it had really started. The market required high quantities of small size, low cost tubes. It is not known how many AD1 were made, but estimated is 250.000 pieces. Also the AD1 socket type (P8) got obsolete, because it can only be connected to "wired" tubes, and not to tubes with the pins through the glass. This socket is amongst the best, ever made. It pulls the tube inside the socket, and it closes the chassis part like a lid, so not dust can get in. You need no tube retainers, the tube pins are extremely well self cleaning, and the chassis part can be accessed for cleaning with a cloth. It is a true high-end socket, and several military sockets were inspired on this technology later.

The electrical data of the Emission Labs ®AD1-mesh tube is almost identical to the original AD1, as made by Telefunken.The difference will be described here. All properties like Anode impedance, transconductance and tube bias are fully identical to the historical tubes. We like to mention here, that the historical tubes had a method to apply the cathode emissive layer, which was not the finest, as with modern tubes. By the historical method, the filament coating was applied by evaporating a depot of Barium inside the tube. When looking at earliest AD1, such as Telefunken, you will see the depot container in the middle of the Anodes. The result is, historical tubes could be made with very low filament current. This was important at those days, because radios operated from batteries. For the rest, there are some disadvantages of this historical method, which is lower lifetime, higher grid current, and high sensitivity for accidental abuse. However it was possible to build first class tubes this way, but we think only Telefunken had this process fully under control. They used chemicals which are forbidden now. Production of modern tubes, is done with classical Barium Oxide coating, which requires more filament current, but enables tubes with more lifetime, and also some accidental abuse will not damage the tube immediately. In short, the difference with EML AD1-mesh is, that it uses more filament current than the historical tubes, and for this the tube rewards you with longer lifetime and higher reliability.

Sound Character of the AD1-mesh

The higher heater voltage of 4 Volts, is also the source of another sound. This effect is only so with directly heated tubes. The AD1 sounds less dominant, more silky than 2A3. It can be said that all 4Volts DHT from the 1930's 1940's have very high collector's value, much higher than 2.5 Volts tubes have ever achieved.

Let me quote Rainer zur Linde, who wrote several books in German language about historical tubes: "AD1 is the highlight of European DHT triodes, and also marks the end of the period of DHT tubes manufacturing". Perhaps there is no better way to describe this tube.

Recommended transformers

Single Ended: LL1623-60mA : Multiple Output impedance, 4, 8, 16 Ohms

Single Ended: LL1664-60mA: Secondary 8 Ohms

Parallel Single Ended:
: Multiple Output impedance, 4, 8, 16 Ohms

Push Pull LL1620-PP : Multiple Output impedance, 4, 8, 16 Ohms

Push Pull LL1620-PP-CFB (with optional 25% Cathode feedback winding)

Complete list of recommendations here


Examples of good transformers at higher voltage working point:

Single Ended: LL9202-50mA (Wire secondary for ALT C, D, E for : 4, 8, 16 Ohms in this order)


  • Gray Wire Mesh Anodes, mounted on a hard metal frame for best stability.
  • Gold Anoded, Wolfram Grid
  • Soft rubber suspended tube base
  • Center tapped filament
  • Slow Start filaments, for best lifetime
  • Anode voltage maximum 400V
  • Can be used continuously at maximum Anode dissipation.
  • Hard metal Construction (Note1)
  • Two extra large getters
  • Hand blown Glass bulb
  • Anti-microphonic Anode- and grid  suspension
  • These tubes are shipped in a high quality dual box
  • Tube printing with real gold (metal),  red color is glass burned into the glass 
  • YAMAMOTO tube sockets highly recommended. 

EML Order nr:

Version with P8 Socket
Detailed image
Socket image

Yamamoto Ceramic Socket for this tube.

Use Yamamoto, or NOS socket from JACMUSIC. New made Chinese sockets are not recommended due to reported problems with contact quality.

EML Order nr:

Version with UX4 Socket


Filament Ratings (See note 5) 
Filament Voltage 
4.0 Volt (AC or DC) 
Tolerance on filament voltage
Filament Current
1,5 Ampere 
Maximum Conditions
(Not possible simultaneously)
Anode Voltage 
Anode Current 
Anode Dissipation 
15 Watt
Grid resistor
max. 300k Ohm 
Typical Tube Parameters
measured @ Ua= 250V, Ia= 60mA
Anode Impedance (Rp)
670 Ohms 
Amplification Factor 
Transconductance (Gm)
6 mA/V

Recommended operating points
Class A (Single Ended) Auto Bias, with Cathode resistor

Anode Voltage
 (to Cathode)
Supply voltage
(to Ground)
Anode Current 
Anode Dissipation 
Cathode Resistor (Rk)
750 Ohms
1200 Ohms
1679 Ohms
Control Grid Voltage 
Load Impedance (Ra)
2500 Ohms
4220 Ohms
6300 Ohms
Recommended Lundahl Transformers
Power Output
4,5 Watt
5,3 Watt
5,8 Watt
These operating points are recommended in: "Elektronenroehren, 2. Band, by H.BARKHAUSEN, 1928. This is one of the finest tube electronics books that I know, and several chapters are dedicated to the wonderful AD1 tube.


EML AD1-Mesh Anode Curves

Download these curves as PTE file - What is that?

Mechanical Data 

EML Logo is
on this side

bottom view

 Size including Socket 

65 x 150mm

EML Logo is
on this side

bottom view

Size including Socket
(but excluding pins)

147 x 60 mm

Weight of one tube:
140 Gram

Pin 1: Heater1
Pin 4: Heater2
Pin2: Anode
Pin3: Grid

Single Tube weight 
110 Gram 
Shipment weight for 
pair in gift box 
600 Gram


    Note 1) Gold Plated grids is a difficult to use technology, which reduces grid current to a minimum. Grid current can be caused by grid emission, when some filament coating gets on the grid. This happens when a power tube is overheated by accident, shortly. Our tubes with gold grids deal with this very effectively. It is better of course not to overheat the tubes, but in case it happens by mistake, we find in many cases they take no damage, when the overheating was very short and not very severe. Historical AD1 tubes, mostly the non-Telefunken suffer from grid current, which will lead to unstable bias. The historical tubes due to their technology could not be made with gold grids.

    Note 2)  Individual Test data, such as:  Matching Data, Grid Current, Vacuum, Filament Current, etc.,  are on the Certificate that comes with each individual Tube.  Each tube  is numbered, inside the bulb  with a metal Tag

    Note 3) Serial filaments is a technology, found in all later types Emission Labs ®tubes. We use a center tapped filament wire for this. The center tap is physically located on the mica Anode the bottom of the tube. By this we connect two filament wires are in series, and the connection point is the center tap. Since this center tap can not be connected to the outside of the tube, we call it a virtual center tap, but actually it really exists inside the tube, and ensures a perfect balancing of the emission of each individual filament wire. By this method we reduce tube hum to the lowest possible level.

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